The Six Layers of SaaS Security

June 6, 2024 at 8:00 am by Amanda Canale

When it comes to Software as a Service (SaaS), security is paramount. The architecture of SaaS applications involves multiple layers, each requiring its own set of security measures. Understanding these layers and how they interconnect helps build a robust defense system.

This is by no means an exhaustive list, as the cybersecurity landscape is constantly changing to mitigate the ever-evolving risks that come with storing sensitive information. This is simply a general overview of just some of the various aspects of SaaS cybersecurity that, when in combination with other methodologies such as SaaS Security Posture Management (SSPM), can provide applications with the security they critically need.

Layer 1: Cloud Security

The very foundation of SaaS security starts with the cloud. As the first line of defense, if the cloud is compromised, then the following security layers are subject to failure as well. It’s this key aspect that makes having proper cloud security measures in place so critical.

One aspect that some don’t often think about when picturing cloud security is the physical security of the data center. Physical barriers, surveillance and monitoring, access controls and visitor management, environmental controls, and in-house data decommissioning are all aspects of data center physical security that play a role in protecting these fortresses that safeguard the provider’s priceless assets.

Another crucial aspect of cloud security is adhering to compliance regulations. Since SaaS providers handle such high volumes of sensitive information, complying with the proper mandates and regulations allows them to avoid legal and financial consequences and mitigate risks while safeguarding both the data they’re storing and their reputation.

These are just two essential security measures that play a role in cloud security; other methods include data encryption, regular security audits, and a slew of others.

Layer 2: Network Security

Network security is the next critical layer, protecting the communication channels between users and the SaaS application, as well as between the different components within the cloud infrastructure. At its core, network security acts as the traffic cop between all communication channels. Firewalls, intrusion detection and prevention systems, secure VPNs, and encryption protocols are just a few key measures that can, essentially, prevent a traffic jam.

Another key method for providers to prevent a jam is by limiting access to untrusted sources and adopting a zero-trust model. The zero trust model is based on the assumption that the call is coming from both inside and outside of the house, meaning no entity should be trusted by default. Adopting this mentality and methodology requires providers to continuously verify user identities and device compliance, for example, through multi-factor authentication, before granting access to their resources, significantly enhancing security.

Other key network monitoring tools can help providers collect and analyze their network’s performance data to find any anomalies or suspicious activity, all in real-time. The further we go into the digital age, the more machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) are increasingly being used to enhance these kinds of detections.

By being able to swiftly detect and address these traffic jams and anomalies, providers can mitigate the impact of potential threats and maintain the integrity of their network.

Layer 3: Server Security

Servers host not only the SaaS applications but the sensitive data of their users as well, making them pivotal to the overall security architecture.

Securing servers can include, but is not limited to:

  • Hardening the operating systems by disabling any unnecessary services and ports, ultimately reducing the surface area and entry points for attacks;
  • Limiting access for both users and processes alike so they only have as much access as needed to complete their function; and
  • Utilizing patch management software that keeps the server’s software and applications up-to-date for optimal streamlining reduces the risk of human error.

Additionally, adopting other security measures such as anti-virus software, intrusion detection systems, and secure configurations can also enhance the protection of servers from both external and internal threats.

Layer 4: User Access Security

Throughout this article, we’ve touched upon how controlling who can access the SaaS application, its infrastructure and components, as well as the collected data, is crucial to maintaining security. User access security involves implementing robust authentication methods, such as multi-factor authentication (MFA), and managing user privileges through role-based access controls (RBAC).

By regularly reviewing and updating user permissions, providers can ensure that only authorized individuals have access to sensitive data and functions. In tandem with stringent asset controls comes properly training these privileged roles about security best practices and potential threats to further enhance overall security.

Layer 5: Application Security

The application layer focuses on securing the SaaS software itself. At this layer lie the more intricate risks, often in the form of coding errors both internally and in any third-party components that may be used. Application security can include adopting secure coding practices, such as:

  • Input validation ensures that all inputs are validated and sanitized to prevent attacks and that only properly formatted data is being processed.
  • Output encoding mitigates cross-site script (XXS) attacks by converting data into a secure format that then prevents the browser from interpreting user-supplied data as part of the web page’s code. In layman’s terms, it prevents any interference with the web page’s intended functionality and/or appearance.
  • Error handling mechanisms can be used to prevent any sensitive information from being released through error messages. It allows providers to create custom error pages and log errors securely without being exposed, and more.

Again, these are just a few measures providers can take to ensure application security and maintain the integrity of their service.

Layer 6: Data Security

At the heart of SaaS security is the protection of data. That’s why we’re here! Data security is all about ensuring the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data stored and processed by the SaaS application. Data security measures can encompass a lot of varying methods and methodologies, from all of what we’ve discussed so far in this article to encryption and backup recovery, data auditing and masking, compliance, and so much more.

To put it succinctly, data security is not a one-size-fits-all solution, nor is there a one-stop-shop for ensuring it. Data security is truly a multifaceted discipline that requires a robust approach, quite literally meaning all hands on deck.

However, there is one vital measure of data security that should always be a key ingredient in whatever security cocktail a SaaS provider concocts: creating and maintaining both a chain of custody and secure data decommissioning procedures.

A chain of custody is a detailed, documented trail of the data’s handling, movement, access, and activity throughout its lifetime that should only ever be managed by authorized personnel.

A secure data decommissioning procedure goes hand-in-hand with a chain of custody, as it is the data’s last stop and the documentation’s last box to check. The criticality of a secure data decommissioning procedure for safeguarding sensitive information cannot be overstated. When SaaS applications reach end-of-life or are moved to alternative locations, organizations must ensure that data is properly disposed of in accordance with industry regulations and best practices to ensure the data is effectively destroyed.

The Hidden Layer: Human Security

The human layer is an essential layer of SaaS security, but unfortunately, it is often overlooked. This layer recognizes that the people handling the data and equipment can be both its greatest asset and its weakest link. This layer encompasses robust security awareness training, a well-documented and maintained chain of custody, fostering a culture of security, and implementing policies that help guide secure behavior.

Routine training programs help educate employees on identifying phishing attempts, using strong passwords, and following best practices for data protection. Encouraging a security-first mindset helps create an environment where employees are vigilant and proactive about security.

By acknowledging and addressing the human layer, SaaS providers can significantly reduce the risk of insider threats and human errors, thereby strengthening the overall security posture of their applications.


In summary, SaaS security is not a one-stop-shop. There is no sure-fire, quick fix to ensuring the integrity of the provider and their efforts, but rather a comprehensive, robust, almost mix-and-match sort of approach that addresses each of these layers and puts data security at the forefront.

These measures not only protect the data itself but also build trust with users and comply with regulatory requirements. By implementing robust security measures at the cloud, network, server, user access, application, data, and human levels, SaaS providers can build resilient defenses against threats and ensure the protection of their SaaS environments.

Navigating SaaS Cybersecurity with SSPM

May 21, 2024 at 8:30 am by Amanda Canale

Securing Software as a Service (SaaS) security is of paramount criticality in today’s digital age where the threat of data breaches and cyber threats consistently linger over us like storm clouds. Thankfully, there’s a way to protect the sensitive information they store. 

SaaS Security Posture Management (SSPM) is a security maintenance methodology designed to detect cybersecurity threats. It does so by continuously evaluating user activity monitoring, compliance assurance, and security configuration audits to ensure the safety and integrity of the sensitive information stored in cloud-based applications.

SSPMs play a crucial role in SaaS cybersecurity as the early threat detection they provide can make way for swift and effective action. And as the number of SaaS providers continue to rise, it’s become even more critical for them to be able to successfully navigate the complicated maze of data security best practices, such as decentralized storage, ironclad passwords, encryption both in life and end-of-life, robust employee training, a chain of custody, and a secure data decommissioning process.

In this blog, we’ll delve into some of the best practices for SSPM that organizations should adopt to safeguard their data effectively.

Decentralized Storage: Data Backup in Multiple Locations

From the personal information stored on our smartphones and computers to our home gaming systems, we all know the importance of backing up our data. The same level of care needs to be taken for SaaS applications, and backing up data to multiple locations is a fundamental aspect of data security. 

Data loss can be catastrophic for any organization. While cloud platforms typically offer robust infrastructure and redundancy measures, relying only on a single data center can leave organizations incredibly vulnerable to catastrophic data loss by way of major outages, man-made and natural disasters, or unauthorized access. Storing data in decentralized locations allows SaaS applications to enhance their redundancy and resilience against data loss because it eliminates single points of failure that are common with centralized storage systems. Decentralized data storage is also often incorporated with encryption and consensus mechanisms to further thwart unauthorized access. 

Compulsory Strong Passwords

Compulsory strong passwords are another essential component of SSPM. Weak or easily guessable passwords are low-hanging fruit for cybercriminals seeking unauthorized access to SaaS accounts. Implementing policies that mandate the use of complex passwords containing a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters can significantly enhance security posture and thwart brute-force attacks.

In addition, regular password updates and the implementation of multi-factor authentication (MFA) can add extra layers of security, making it exponentially harder for cybercriminals to breach your systems.


Encryption is like a protective shield for sensitive data, scrambling the drive’s data into ciphertext, making it completely unreadable to unauthorized users, both during the drive’s life and in end-of-life. Typically, the authorized user needs to use a specific algorithm and encryption key to decipher the data. 

Implementing strong encryption protocols not only help SaaS applications meet critical compliance regulations but also foster trust among their customers and stakeholders that their data is being protected.  

After all, the assumption is that if you can’t read what’s on the drive, what good is it, right? Not quite.

Encryption is not a complete failsafe as decryption keys can be compromised or accessible in other ways and hacking technology is at an all-time high level of sophistication, so it’s vital to your data security to have a proper chain of custody and data decommissioning procedure in place to securely destroy any end-of-life drives, encrypted or not. We’ll talk about that more in a bit. 

However, even with this fallback, encryption is still a vital tool that should be combined with other best practices to secure the sensitive information being stored and collected.

Robust Employee Training 

Robust employee training is another indispensable tool for strengthening SaaS security. Human error and negligence are among the leading causes of data breaches and security incidents. As with any new skill or job, proper training provides people with structured guidance and knowledge to better understand the task at hand and ensures that learners are receiving up-to-date information and best practices. By fostering a culture of security awareness and providing comprehensive training, SaaS applications can empower their employees to recognize and mitigate potential threats proactively. 

Robust training makes it crucial for organizations to properly educate employees about cybersecurity best practices and the importance of adhering to established security policies and procedures, like a chain of custody.

Chain of Custody and Data Decommissioning Procedure

Last, but certainly not least, there’s creating and maintaining both a chain of custody and secure data decommissioning procedure. 

For context, a chain of custody is a detailed documented trail of the data’s handling, movement, access, and activity, from within the facility and throughout their lifecycle. A strong chain of custody guarantees that data is exclusively managed by authorized personnel. With this level of transparency, SaaS applications can significantly minimize the risk of unauthorized access or tampering and further enhance their overall data security. Not to mention ensuring compliance with regulations and preserving data integrity.

Part of that chain of custody also includes documenting what happens to the data once it reaches end-of-life. 

A secure data decommissioning procedure is essential for safeguarding sensitive information throughout its lifecycle. When retiring SaaS applications or migrating to alternative solutions, organizations must ensure that data is properly disposed of in accordance with industry regulations and best practices. 

While creating and maintaining both a chain of custody and decommissioning process, there is also a strong emphasis on conducting the decommissioning in-house. In-house data decommissioning, or destruction, is exactly what it sounds like: destroying your end-of-life data under the same roof you store it. Documenting the in-house decommissioning mitigates the potential for data breaches and leaks and is essential in verifying that all necessary procedures have been followed in accordance with compliance regulations, industry best practices, and provides you the assurance that the data is destroyed.


At the end of the day, when it comes to securing the personal and sensitive information you collect and store as a SaaS provider, the significance of complying with SSPM best practices cannot be overstated. By backing up data to multiple locations, enforcing strong password policies, leveraging encryption, providing comprehensive employee training, and implementing secure chain of custody and in-house data decommissioning procedures, SaaS providers can enhance their data security and protect against a wide range of threats and vulnerabilities.

Regulatory Compliance and Data Protection: A Guide for SaaS Providers

May 1, 2024 at 8:15 am by Amanda Canale

The digital world we’re currently living in is constantly evolving; there’s no denying it. As new technologies and applications come with new vulnerabilities and threats, regulatory compliance and data protection stand as two crucial principles guiding these advancements and industries forward, including software-as-a-service (SaaS) applications.

As SaaS providers navigate through the complicated maze of compliance regulations, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS), and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), ensuring complete compliance with these standards becomes of vital importance.

At the heart of regulatory compliance and data protection lie a slew of essential security measures, ranging from data encryption and access controls to regular security audits, incident response planning, and, most importantly, data decommissioning processes. Whether it’s physical security, cybersecurity, or other methods and measures, it is crucial that the two always go hand-in-hand.

Essential Security Measures and Methods

Data Encryption

Data encryption stands as an essential tool, not just for SaaS providers but for any organization or company handling sensitive information. By converting the information into an encrypted format, SaaS providers (and their customers) can rest assured knowing that even in the off chance the data is compromised, it will remain indecipherable to unauthorized accessors. This encryption process requires complex algorithms to essentially scramble the data into ciphertext, which can only be decrypted with the corresponding decryption key, which is typically held by authorized users (think like a treasure chest that can only be opened by a one-of-a-kind, magical key).

Implementing robust encryption protocols not only helps SaaS providers comply with regulatory mandates but also instills confidence and trust among customers regarding the security of their data. With data encryption in place, SaaS providers can begin to mitigate the risk of potential thefts, maintain confidentiality, and uphold the integrity of their systems and services.

Access Controls

The next crucial cybersecurity reinforcement are access controls that restrict data access to only those with permission and clearance.

Access controls serve as a critical layer of defense for SaaS providers, ensuring that only authorized individuals can access sensitive data and resources. Key cards, PINs, biometric authentication, multi-factor authentication, and other secure methods all play a role in verifying the identity of those seeking entry. By restricting access to data and functionalities to only those with specific roles or privileges, access controls help prevent unauthorized access, data breaches, and insider threats.

Additionally, access controls play a heavy role when adhering to compliance regulations and mandates, ensuring that data is accessed and handled while aligning with their corresponding privacy and security standards.

Regular Security Audits

Regular security audits are just one phenomenal proactive risk management tool for identifying vulnerabilities while adhering to compliance standards. Scheduled assessments of systems, processes, and controls give SaaS providers the power to identify any potential or existing vulnerabilities, assess the effectiveness of their already existing security measures, and mitigate them. These audits not only help to detect and address security weaknesses but also showcase a transparent commitment to maintaining robust security practices, something partners, customers, and investors are looking for when it comes to their sensitive information.

Incident Response Planning

Another effective proactive tool for optimal SaaS cybersecurity is implementing a stringent incident response plan. An incident response plan is an indispensable tool for not just SaaS providers but everyone, as it outlines clear protocols for incident detection, proper communication channels for reporting and escalation, and predefined roles and responsibilities for all of their key stakeholders.

Incident response planning can also include regular drills and simulations to test the plan’s efficiency and effectiveness while also ensuring that all personnel are ready to handle whatever security incident is thrown their way. (We do fire drills for a reason, so why not do them when it comes to our own data?) By prioritizing incident response planning, SaaS providers can minimize the potential damage of security breaches, preserve data integrity, and uphold customer trust in their ability to safeguard sensitive information.

In-House Data Decommissioning Processes

The last and most crucial step of any data lifecycle management strategy is a high-security data decommissioning process, preferably in-house. We all know this. Otherwise known as data destruction, proper data decommissioning is the process of securely and responsibly disposing of any data considered “end-of-life.” Data decommissioning should be applied to any device that can store data, such as hard disk drives (HDDs), paper, optical media, eMedia, solid-state drives (SSDs), and more.

When data is properly managed and disposed of, organizations can better enforce data retention policies. This, in turn, leads to improved data governance and gravely reduces the risk of unauthorized or illegal access. As critical as data decommissioning is, having it done in-house provides an added layer of security when ensuring that all sensitive data is disposed of properly. Additionally, it assists companies in adhering to data protection laws like GDPR and HIPAA, which frequently call for strict, safe data disposal procedures.

Compliance Regulations

As SaaS providers handle vast amounts of sensitive data, ensuring compliance with regulations is crucial, but compliance regulations are not a one-size-fits-all fit. Each regulation brings its own set of requirements, implications, and parameters, along with its own list of consequences and fines.

To keep it brief, here is just a small list of compliance regulations SaaS providers should be in accordance with.

Financial Compliance
  • ASC 606: ASC 606 is a security framework that was developed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). It’s a five-step process that allows businesses and organizations to accurately and transparently reflect the timing and amount of revenue that is earned.
  • Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP): GAAP, also developed by FASB, is a collection of accounting rules and best practices that U.S. law mandates when it comes to releasing public financial statements, such as those traded on the stock exchange.
  • International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS): IFRS is a set of global accounting guidelines that apply to a public corporation’s financial statements in order to show transparency, consistency, and international comparison.
Security Compliance
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO/IEC 27001): ISO/IEC 27001 is an internationally recognized standard for information security management systems and provides a framework for identifying, analyzing, and mitigating security risks.
  • Service Organization Control (SOC 2): SOC 2 was developed by the American Institute of CPAs (AICPA) to be a compliance standard that defines the criteria for managing customer information within service organizations.
  • Payment Card Industry and Data Security Standard (PCI DSS): PCI DSS is a set of security protocols that must be adhered to by any company that handles payment processes, such as accepting, transferring, or storing card financial data.
Data Security and Compliance
  • General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): GDPR is a personal data protection law that requires stringent data protection standards for businesses and organizations that handle personal data of EU citizens, regardless of where the business operates from. With GDPR, EU residents are able to view, erase, and export their data, and even object to the processing of their information.
  • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): HIPAA is an American federal law that protects sensitive patient health information (PHI) from being shared without their consent.
  • California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA): CCPA is essentially like GDPR but for California residents, granting them greater control over their personal information and necessitating transparent data collection practices and opt-out mechanisms.


In conclusion, for SaaS providers, regulatory compliance and data protection represent not just legal obligations but also opportunities to foster customer trust and optimize their data security measures. By implementing essential security measures, adhering to regulatory frameworks, and embracing a culture of continuous improvement, SaaS providers can navigate the regulatory landscape with confidence, safeguarding both data and reputation in an increasingly digitized world.

At SEM, we have a wide array of high-security data destruction solutions that are specifically designed to meet any volume and compliance regulations, whether in the financial, healthcare, payment card, or other industries. In a time when the digital space has the power to influence the course of multiple industries, implementing essential security methods along with a decommissioning plan are crucial tools that determine an industry’s robustness, legitimacy, and identity.

Why Cybersecurity is Crucial for the Saas Industry

March 25, 2024 at 8:00 am by Amanda Canale

In 2024, we have entered an era that has, for the most part, been completely dominated by digital transformation. As Software as a Service (SaaS) applications continue to emerge as a pillar for businesses on the hunt for optimal efficiency, scalability, and innovation, there’s no denying that there has been an increasing dependence on cybersecurity. And that dependency is more critical than ever.

Today, we want to not only ask, but answer the question: why is cybersecurity crucial for SaaS companies?

 First, let’s cover the basics.

What is a SaaS company?

SaaS companies have essentially revolutionized the traditional way software is delivered by providing users with access to their apps and services via the internet. Contrary to the more conventional software installations, SaaS companies have been able to completely eliminate the need for users to invest in pricey hardware or maneuver through complex and time consuming installations and updates. 

Since SaaS applications are housed centrally, they provide an accessible route to their services and data, all through a basic web browser. Not only does this offer more accessibility, but also flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and unparalleled scalability. (After all, the world wide web knows no bounds, meaning SaaS companies could be just on the brink of a new wave of technological innovation.)

SaaS platforms span across of wide variety of industries and functions, from customer relationship management (CRM) and human resources to project management and enterprise resource planning (ERP). Regardless of their industry or function, SaaS companies often handle sensitive information, including customer data, financial records, and proprietary business data, meaning that a data breach could lead to severe consequences, both on the legal and reputation fronts. 

Unforeseen Threats

SaaS companies, with their troves of invaluable data stored in the cloud, have become an alluring and irresistible target for cyberattacks. However, cybersecurity’s role in SaaS functionality is not just about protecting its data but is also about securing the very fabric that upholds it. 

Speaking of “fabric,” picture SaaS applications as an intricately woven tapestry made up of equally complex interconnected services and third-party integrations. To an outsider, it’s something to marvel at with all of its connected threads and lines forming patterns and beautiful imagery. But to those who know what to look for, it’s a messy web of functions that can all bring about their own instances of opportunity and vulnerabilities. 

It’s this tapestry in particular why cybersecurity measures must extend beyond the immediate SaaS platform, fully encompassing the entire complex ecosystem in order to create a unified defense against all potential threats.

Ever-Evolving Battlefields 

A SaaS company’s proactive approach to cybersecurity is marked by regular updates, stringent patch management, and systematic security audits. 

But what do those mean?

Regular updates ensure that software and systems are equipped with the latest defenses, addressing vulnerabilities, and enhancing their overall resilience. Stringent patch management involves promptly applying security patches to address any identified weaknesses and minimizing the window of opportunity for potential breaches. Finally, systematic security audits are a comprehensive assessment, judging the entire infrastructure to identify and rectify any existing vulnerabilities.

However, the reality is that hackers and thieves are continuously evolving their tactics, meaning that it is vital for SaaS companies to be able to adapt and uphold their defenses against this ever-changing battlefield. They can do so by leveraging innovative technologies and embracing a more modern, proactive mindset that anticipates, rather than reacts to, the evolving cybersecurity realm. Upholding defenses in this ever-changing battlefield demands a dynamic approach, one that not only mirrors the agility of cyber attackers, but also ensuring that the SaaS applications always remains one step ahead.


The ever-present, ominous threat of ransomware, phishing schemes, and data breaches have and will always loom, requiring a robust and continually improved cybersecurity system to act as a bodyguard against these unseen adversaries and mitigating potential operational disruptions.

Cybersecurity is not merely a technological accessory but an integral component that defines any industry’s resilience, credibility, and identity in an era where the digital realm shapes the trajectory of businesses and economies alike.

Top 5 SaaS Data Breaches

February 28, 2024 at 8:00 am by Amanda Canale

As of 2023, 45% of businesses have dealt with cloud-based data breaches, which has risen five percent from the previous year. Data breaches have increased with the advancement of cloud-based platforms and software as a service (SaaS). These services offer flexibility to access an absurd number of services on the internet rather than install ones individually. Although this is an incredible technological advancement, there are high-risk factors with data privacy that arise. Information can easily be shared between cloud services, meaning companies must protect their sensitive information at all costs. With the increase in the use of SaaS applications, there are security measures that should be taken to prevent data leaks from happening.

Here’s a rundown of well-known SaaS companies that have experienced significant data breaches and security measures to help prevent similar incidents from affecting you.


Facebook has faced multiple data breaches over the last decade, with their most recent one in 2019, affecting over 530 million users. Facebook failed to notify these individual users of their data being stolen. Phone numbers, full names, locations, email addresses, and other user profile information were posted to a public database. Although financial information, health information, and passwords were not leaked, there is still a rise in security concerns from Facebook’s users.

Malicious actors used the contract importer to scrape data from people’s profiles. This feature was created to help users connect with people in their contact list but had security gaps which led actors to access information on public profiles. Security changes were put in place in 2019, but these actors had been able to access the information prior.

When adding personal information to profiles or online services, individuals need to be conscious of the level of detail they disclose as it can be personally identifying.


In 2021, 30,000 US companies and up to 60,000 worldwide companies total were affected by a cyberattack on Microsoft Exchange email servers. These hackers gained access to emails ranging from small businesses to local governments.

Again in 2023, a Chinese attack hit Microsoft’s cloud platform, affecting 25 organizations. These hackers forged authentication to access email accounts and personal information.

Constructive backup plans are crucial for a smooth recovery after a data breach occurs. Microsoft constantly updates its security measures, prioritizing email, file-sharing platforms, and SaaS apps. These cyberattacks are eye-opening for how escalated the situation can become. Designating a specific team for cybersecurity can help monitor any signs of suspicious activity.


Yahoo experienced one of the largest hacking incidents in history, affecting 3 billion user accounts. Yahoo did not realize the severity of this breach, causing the settlement to be $117.5 million. Yahoo offers services like Yahoo Mail, Yahoo Finance, Yahoo Fantasy Sports, and Flickr which were all affected by this breach.

This one-click data breach occurred when a Canadian hacker worked with Russian spies to hack Yahoo’s use of cookies and access important personal data. These hackers could obtain usernames, email addresses, phone numbers, birthdates, and user passwords, all of which are personally identifiable information (PII) and more than enough for a hacker to take over people’s lives. An extensive breach like Yahoo raises concern for its users regarding data privacy and the cybersecurity of their information.


From September 2023 to December 2023, Verizon experienced a breach within its workplace. This breach occurred when an employee compromised personal data from 63,000 colleagues. Verizon described this issue as an “insider wrongdoing”. Names, addresses, and social security numbers were exposed but were not used or shared. Verizon resolved this breach by allowing affected employees to get two years of protection on their information and up to $1 million for stolen funds/ expenses.

While this information was not used or extended to customer information, companies need to educate their workplace on precautions for data privacy. If individuals hear that the inner circle is leaking personal information about their colleagues, it raises concern for customers.


Equifax, a credit reporting agency, experienced a data breach in 2017 that affected roughly 147 million consumers. Investigators emphasized the security failures that allowed hackers to get in and navigate through different servers. These hackers gained access to social security numbers, birth dates, home addresses, credit card information, and their driver’s license information.

This failed security check from an Equifax employee caused easy access for these hackers in multiple spots. Taking the extra time to ensure your company has secured loose ties is crucial for reducing attacks.


Data breaches occur no matter a company’s size or industry, but the risks can be reduced with secure and consistent precautions. Data breaches are common, especially with the extended use of cloud platforms and SaaS, but failing to store and transport information among services, to have a documented chain of custody, and data decommissioning process in place all play a role in having your sensitive information being accessed by the wrong kinds of people.

At SEM, we offer a variety of in-house solutions designed to destroy any personal information that is out there. Our IT Solutions, specifically our NSA-listed Degausser,  SEM Model- EMP1000- HS stands as the premier degausser in the market today. This degausser offers destruction with one click, destroying the binary magnetic field that stores your end-of-life data. SaaS companies can feel secure knowing their data is destroyed by an NSA-approved government data destruction model. While an NSA-listed destruction solution isn’t always necessary for SaaS companies, it is secure enough for the US Government, so we can assure you it’s secure enough to protect your end-of-life data, too.

Whether your data is government-level or commercial, it is important to ensure data security, which is where SEM wants to help. There is an option for everyone at SEM, with a variety of NSA-listed degaussers, IT crushers, and IT shredders to protect your end-of-life data. Further your security measures today by finding out which data solutions work best for you.

Data Centers: Every Square Foot Counts

November 15, 2023 at 1:30 pm by Amanda Canale

In the vast and complex world of data centers, the maximization of space is not just a matter of practicality; it is a crucial aspect that has the power to directly affect a facility’s efficiency, sustainability, flow of operations, and, frankly, financial standing.

Today, information isn’t just power, but rather it serves as the lifeblood for countless industries and systems, making data centers stand as the literal bodyguards of this priceless resource. With the ever-expanding volume of data being generated, stored, and processed, the effective use of space within these centers has become more critical than ever.

In layman’s terms, every square foot of a data center holds tremendous value and significance.

Now, we’re not here to focus on how you can maximize the physical space of your data center; we’re not experts in which types of high-density server racks will allow you more floor space or which HVAC unit will optimize airflow.

What we are going to focus on is our expertise in high-security data destruction, an aspect of data center infrastructure that holds an equal amount of value and significance. We’re also going to focus on the right questions you should be asking when selecting destruction solutions. After all, size and space requirements mixed with compliance regulations are aspects of a physical space that need to be addressed when choosing the right solution.

So, we are posing the question, “When every square foot counts, does an in-house destruction machine make sense?”

Let’s find out.

Data Center IT Specialist and System administrator Talk, Use Tablet Computer, Wearing Safety Wests. Server Clod Farm with Two Information Technology Engineers checking Cyber Security.

The Important Questions

Let’s start off with the basic questions you need to answer before purchasing any sort of in-house data destruction devices.

What are your specific destruction needs (volume, media type, compliance regulations, etc.) and at what frequency will you be performing destruction? 

The first step in determining if an in-house destruction solution is the right move for your facility is assessing your volume, the types of data that need to be destroyed, and whether you will be decommissioning on a regular basis. Are you only going to be destroying hard drives? Maybe just solid state media? What about both? Will destruction take place every day, every month, or once a quarter?

It’s important to also consider factors such as the sensitivity of the data and any industry-specific regulations that dictate the level of security required. Additionally, a high volume of data decommissioning might justify the investment in in-house equipment, while lower-volume needs might require a different kind of solution.

How much physical space can you allocate for in-house equipment?

By evaluating the available square footage in a data center, facility management can ensure that the space allocated for the data destruction equipment is not only sufficient for the machinery but will also allow for efficient workflow and compliance with safety regulations. The dimensions for all of our solutions can be found on our website within their respective product pages.

What is your budget for destruction solutions?

Determining budget constraints for acquiring and maintaining in-house data destruction equipment will allow you to consider not only the upfront costs but also ongoing expenses such as maintenance, training, and potential upgrades. It’s important to note that, in addition to evaluating your budget for ­in-house equipment, the comparison between an in-house solution and cost of a data breach should also be taken into consideration.

All of the answers to these questions will help determine the type of solution (shredder, crusher, disintegrator, etc.), the compliance regulation it should meet (HIPAA, NSA, NIST, etc.), the physical size, and if there should be any custom specifications that should be implemented. 

Warning icon on a digital LCD display with reflection. Concept of cyber attack, malware, ransomware, data breach, system hacking, virus, spyware, compromised information and urgent attention.

Data Breaches: A Recipe for Financial Catastrophes

One of the primary reasons why every square foot counts within data centers is the financial element. Building and maintaining data center infrastructures often come with significant expenses, ranging from real estate and construction to cooling, power supply, and hardware installations, just for starters. It’s important to ensure that you are maximizing both your physical space and your budget to get the most bang for your buck.

But even beyond the physical constraints and considerations, the financial implications can loom overhead, especially in the context of data security.

Data breaches represent not just a threat to digital security but also a financial consequence that can reverberate for years. The fallout from a breach extends far beyond immediate remediation costs, encompassing regulatory fines, legal fees, public relations efforts to salvage a damaged reputation, and the intangible loss of customer trust.

For example, from January to June 2019, there were more than 3,800 publicly disclosed data breaches that resulted in 4.1 billion records being compromised. And according to the IBM and Ponemon Institute report, the cost of an average data breach in 2023 is $4.45 million, a 15% increase over the past three years.

So, while, yes, you want to make sure you are making the best use out of your budget to bring in the necessary equipment and storage capability to truly use up every square foot of space, part of that budget consideration should also include secure in-house solutions. 

You’re probably saying to yourself, “As long as I can outsource my destruction obligations, I can maximize my physical space with said necessary equipment.”

You’re not wrong.

But you’re not necessarily right, either.

The Hidden Costs of Outsourced Data Destruction

Outsourcing data destruction has traditionally been a common practice, with the aim of offloading the burden of secure information disposal. However, as we’ve stated in previous blogs, introducing third party data sanitization vendors into your end-of-life decommissioning procedures can gravely increase the chain of custody, resulting in a far higher risk of data breaches.

Third-party service contracts, transportation costs, and potential delays in data destruction contribute to an ongoing financial outflow. More so, the lack of immediate control raises concerns about the security of sensitive information during transit. For example, in July 2020, the financial institution Morgan Stanley came under fire for an alleged data breach of their clients’ financial information after an IT asset disposition (ITAD) vendor misplaced various pieces of computer equipment that had been storing customers’ sensitive personally identifiable information (PII).

While ITADs certainly have their role within the data decommissioning world, as facilities accumulate more data, and as the financial stakes continue to rise, the need to control the complete chain of custody (including in-house decommissioning) becomes more and more crucial. 

In-House Data Destruction: A Strategic Financial Investment 

Now that your questions have been answered and your research has been conducted, it’s time to (officially) enter the realm of in-house data destruction solutions – an investment that not only addresses security concerns but aligns with the imperative to make every square foot count. 

It’s crucial that we reiterate that while the upfront costs associated with implementing an in-house destruction machine may appear significant, they must be viewed through the lens of long-term cost efficiency and risk mitigation. 

In the battle against data breaches, time is truly of the essence. In-house data destruction solutions provide immediate control over the process, reducing the risk of security breaches during transportation and ensuring a swift response to data disposal needs. This agility becomes an invaluable asset in an era where the threat landscape is continually evolving. In-house data destruction emerges not only as a means of maximizing space but as a financial imperative, offering a proactive stance against the potentially catastrophic financial repercussions of data breaches. 

Whether your journey leads you to a Model 0101 Automatic Hard Drive Crusher or a DC-S1-3 HDD/SSD Combo Shredder, comparing the costs of these solutions (and their average lifespan) to a potential data breach resulting in millions of dollars, makes your answer that much simpler: by purchasing in-house end-of-life data destruction equipment, your facility is making the most cost-effective, safest, and securest decision.

The Hidden Heroes: Environmental Solutions for Data Centers

October 30, 2023 at 3:31 pm by Amanda Canale

Behind the scenes of our increasingly interconnected world, lie the hidden heroes of today’s data centers — environmental controls.  

Data centers must be equipped with a multitude of environmental controls, ranging from electricity monitoring and thermal control to air flow and quality control and fire and leak suppression, all of which play pivotal roles in maintaining an optimal environment for data centers to operate effectively and sufficiently.

Embracing compliance regulations and standards aimed at reducing energy consumption and promoting sustainability is an essential step towards a data center’s greener future (not to mention a step towards a greener planet).

Electricity Monitoring

It’s a no-brainer that the main component of a data center’s ability to operate is electricity. In fact, it’s at the center of, well, everything we do now in the digital age.

It is also no secret that data centers are notorious for their high energy consumption, so managing their electricity usage efficiently is essential in successfully maintaining their operations. Not to mention that any disruption to the supply of electricity can lead to catastrophic consequences, such as data loss and service downtime. With electricity monitoring, data centers can proactively track their consumption and identify any service irregularities in real time, allowing facilities to mitigate risk, reduce operational costs, extend the lifespan of their equipment, and guarantee uninterrupted service delivery.

The Role of Uptime Institute’s Tier Classification in Electrical Monitoring

The Uptime Institute’s Tier Classification and electricity monitoring in data centers are intrinsically linked as they both play pivotal roles in achieving optimal reliability and efficiency. The world-renowned Tier Classification system provides data centers with the framework for designing and evaluating their infrastructure based on four stringent tiers. Tier IV is the system’s most sophisticated tier, offering facilities 99.995% uptime per year, or less than or equal to 26.3 minutes of downtime annually.

Utilizing the Tier Classifications in their electricity monitoring efforts, data centers can fine-tune their power infrastructure for peak efficiency, reducing energy waste and operating costs along the way.

Read more about the vitality of the Uptime Institute’s Tier Classification in our recent blog, here.

Thermal and Humidity Control 

The temperature and humidity within a data center’s walls hold significant value in maintaining the operational efficiency, sustainability, and integrity of a data center’s IT infrastructure.  

Unfortunately, finding that sweet spot between excessive dryness and high moisture levels can be a bit tricky. 

According to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), data centers should aim to operate between 18 – 27oC, or 64.4 – 80.6 oF; however, it’s important to note that this range is just a recommendation and there are currently no mandates or compliance regulations detailing a specific temperature.

Meanwhile, AVTECH Software, a private computer hardware and software developer company, suggest a data center environment should maintain ambient relative humidity within 45-55%, with a minimum humidity rate of 20%. 

Thankfully, due to the exponential rise in data centers over time, there are countless devices available to monitor both temperature and humidity levels.

Striking the right balance in thermal and humidity levels helps safeguard the equipment and maintain a reliable, stable, and secure data center environment. Efficient cooling systems help optimize energy consumption, reducing operational costs and environmental impact, whereas humidity controls prevent condensation, static electricity buildup, and electrostatic discharge, which can damage the more delicate components. 

Air Flow Management and Quality Control

Here’s a question for you: ever be working late on your laptop with a bunch of windows and programs open, and it starts to sound like it’s about to take off for space?

That means your laptop is overheating and is lacking proper airflow.

Air flow management and air quality control serve as two sides of the same coin: both contribute to equipment reliability, energy efficiency, and optimal health and safety for operators.

Air Flow Management 

Regardless of their scale, when data centers lack proper airflow management, they can easily become susceptible to hotspots. Hotspots are areas within data centers and similar facilities that become excessively hot from inadequate cooling, ultimately leading to equipment overheating, potential failures, and, even worse, fires. Not only that, but inefficient air flow results in wasted energy and money and requires other cooling systems to work overtime.

By strategically arranging specially designed server racks, implementing hot and cold aisle containment systems, and installing raised flooring, data centers can ensure that cool air is efficiently delivered to all their server components while hot air is effectively pushed out. While meticulous and stringent, this level of management prolongs the lifespan of expensive hardware and gravely reduces energy consumption, resulting in significant cost savings and environmental benefits. 

Air Quality Control

Airborne contaminants, such as dust, pollen, and outside air pollution, can severely clog server components and obstruct airflow, leading to equipment overheating and failures and eventually other catastrophic consequences. Not to mention, chemical pollutants from cleaning supplies and other common contaminants such as ferrous metal particles from printers and various mechanical parts, concrete dust from unsealed concrete, and electrostatic dust all play a role in corroding sensitive and critical circuitry.

Air quality control systems, including advanced air filtration and purification technologies, help maintain a pristine environment by removing these airborne particles and contaminants. These additional systems allow facilities to extend their server and network equipment lifespans, operate at peak efficiency, and reduce the frequency of costly replacements and repairs, all while contributing to data center reliability and data security.

Fire Suppression 

The significance of fire suppression in data centers lies in the ability to quickly and effectively prevent and combat fires, ultimately minimizing damage and downtime. Due to the invaluable data, assets, and infrastructure within data centers, these suppression systems are designed to detect and put out fires in their earliest stages to prevent them from spreading and escalating. 

Data centers use a variety of cutting-edge technologies such as early warning smoke detection, heat sensors, water mist sprinkler systems, smoke and fire controlling curtains, and even clean agents like inert gases, which leave no residue, thus further safeguarding the integrity of the sensitive equipment.

Causes of Fires in Data Centers

Electrical failures are the most common cause for data center fires, and often stem from overloaded circuits, equipment malfunctions, and defective wiring. They can also be started by electrical surges and arc flashes, otherwise known as an electrical discharge that is ignited by low-impedance connections within the facility’s electrical system.

Lithium-ion Batteries have a high energy density and are typically placed near a facility’s servers to ensure server backup power in the case of a main power failure. However, lithium-ion batteries burn hotter than lead-acid batteries, meaning that if they overheat, their temperature can trigger a self-perpetuating reaction, further raising the batteries’ temperatures.

Insufficient maintenance such as failing to clean and repair key data center components, such as servers, power supplies, and cooling systems can quickly lead to dust and particle accumulation. Dust, particularly conductive dust, when allowed the time to build up on these components, can potentially cause short circuits and overheating, both which can lead to a fire.

Human error is inevitable and can play a large part in data center fires and data breaches, despite all of the advanced technologies and safety measures in place. These types of errors range from improper equipment handling, poor cable management, inadequate safety training, overloading power sources, and more.

 Leak Detection

Remember when we said that it is no secret that data centers are notorious for their high energy consumption? The same can be said for their water usage. 

On average, data centers in the U.S. use approximately 450 million gallons of water a day in order to generate electricity and to keep their facilities cool. Any kind of failure within a data center’s cooling system can lead to a coolant leak, which can further lead to catastrophic consequences, such as costly downtime, data loss, and irreparable damage to their expensive equipment. 

Leak detection systems’ role is of extreme importance in safeguarding data centers because they promptly identify and alert facility staff to any leaks that can cause water damage to critical servers, networking equipment, and other valuable assets. Raised floors also act as a protective barrier against potential water damage, for they keep sensitive equipment elevated above the floor, reducing the risk of damage and downtime.

The Role of SEM

Data centers operate in controlled environments and have state-of-the-art air quality and flow management systems to achieve equipment reliability, energy efficiency, and optimal health and safety for operators. This much we know.

What we also know is just how important in-house data decommissioning is to maintaining data security. In-house data decommissioning is the process of securely and ethically disposing of any data that is deemed “end-of-life,” allowing enterprises to keep better control over their data assets and mitigate breaches or unauthorized access. 

So, how does in-house data decommissioning play into a data center’s environmental controls?

Well, the process of physically destroying data, especially through techniques like shredding or crushing, can often release fine particle matter and dust into the air. This particle matter can potentially sneak its way into sensitive equipment, clog cooling systems, and degrade the facility’s overall air quality, like we discussed earlier.

At SEM, we have a wide range of data center solutions for the destruction of hard disk drives (HDDs) and solid state drives (SSDs) that are integrated with HEPA filtration, acting as a crucial barrier against airborne contaminants. HEPA filtration enhances air quality, improving operator and environmental health and safety.


Temperature and humidity control, air quality and airflow management, fire suppression, and leak detection all work together to create a reliable and efficient environment for data center equipment. Combined with stringent physical security measures, power and data backup regulations, compliance mandates, and proper documentation and training procedures, data center operators can ensure uninterrupted service and protect valuable data assets. 

As technology continues to evolve, the importance of these controls in data centers will only grow, making them a cornerstone of modern computing infrastructure.

Data Center Efficiency Starts with Proper Documentation and Training

October 12, 2023 at 8:00 am by Amanda Canale

At the rate at which today’s technology is constantly improving and developing, the importance of thorough, accurate documentation and training cannot be overstated. After all, data centers house and manage extremely critical infrastructure, hardware, software, and invaluable data, all of which require routine maintenance, overseeing, upgrading, configuration, and secure end-of-life destruction.

One way to view documentation in data centers is that it serves as the thread tying together all the diverse data and equipment that play a crucial role in sustaining these facilities: physical security, environmental controls, redundancies, documentation, training, and more.

Simply put, the overarching theme of proper documentation within data centers is that it provides clarity.

Clarity in knowing where every piece of equipment is located and what state it is in.

Clarity when analyzing existing infrastructure capacities.

Clarity on regulatory compliance during audits.

Clarity on, well, every aspect of a data center’s functionality, to be completely honest.

But, before we dive into the benefits of proper documentation, first things first: what does proper documentation look like?

  • Work instructions and configuration guides;
  • Support ticket logs to track issues, either from end-users or in-house;
  • Chain-of-custody and record of past chains-of-custody to know who is authorized to handle which assets and who manages or oversees equipment and specific areas;
  • Maintenance schedules;
  • Change management systems that track where each server is and how to access it;
  • And most importantly, data decommissioning process and procedures.

This is by no means an exhaustive list of all the necessary documentation data centers should retain, but these few items provide perfect examples of what kind of documentation is needed to keep facilities functioning efficiently. 

Now that you have a better idea of what kind of critical documentation should be maintained, let’s dive into the benefits (because that is, in fact, why you’re here reading this!).

Organization and Inventory Management

Documentation provides a clear and up-to-date picture of all the hardware, software, and infrastructure components within a data center. This includes servers, networking equipment, storage devices, and more. By maintaining accurate records of each component’s specifications, location within the facility, and status, data center managers and maintenance personnel can easily identify their available resources, track their usage, and plan for upgrades or replacements as needed.

Knowledge Preservation and Training Development

In any data center, knowledge is a priceless asset. Documenting configurations, network topologies, hardware specifications, decommissioning regulations, and other items mentioned above ensures that institutional knowledge is not lost when individuals leave the organization. (So, no need to panic once the facility veteran retires, as you’ll already have all the information they have!)

This information becomes crucial for staff, maintenance personnel, and external consultants to understand every facet of the systems quickly and accurately. It provides a more structured learning path, facilitates a deeper understanding of the data center’s infrastructure and operations, and allows facilities to keep up with critical technological advances.

By creating a well-documented environment, facilities can rest assured knowing that authorized personnel are adequately trained, and vital knowledge is not lost in the shuffle, contributing to overall operational efficiency and effectiveness, and further mitigating future risks or compliance violations. 

Knowledge is power, after all! 

Enhanced Troubleshooting and Risk Mitigation 

Understanding how to mitigate risks is fundamental to maintaining data center performance. In the event of an issue or failure (no matter how minor), time is of the essence. Whether it is a physical breach, an environmental disaster, equipment reaching end-of-life, or something entirely different, the quick-moving efforts due to proper documentation expedite the troubleshooting and risk mitigation process. This allows IT staff to identify the root cause of a problem and take appropriate corrective actions as soon as possible, ultimately minimizing downtime and ensuring that critical systems are restored promptly. 

Expansion and Scalability 

As we continue to accumulate more and more data, the need for expanding and upgrading data centers also continues to grow. Proper documentation provides the proper training and skills to plan and execute expansions (whether it’s adding new hardware, optimizing software, reconfiguring networks, or installing in-house data decommissioning equipment), insights into existing capacities, potential areas for growth, and all other necessary upgrades. This kind of foresight is invaluable for efficient scalability and futureproofing. Additionally, trained personnel can adapt to these evolving requirements with confidence and ease, boosting morale and efficiency.

Regulatory Compliance Mandates

In today’s highly regulated climate, data centers are subject to a myriad of industry-specific and government-imposed regulations, such as GDPR, HIPAA, PCI DSS, NSA, and FedRAMP (just to name a few). These regulations demand stringent data protection, security, and destruction measures, making meticulous documentation a core component of complying to these standards.

By documenting data center policies, procedures, security controls, and equipment destruction, data centers can provide a clear trail of accountability. This paper trail helps data center operators track and prove compliance regulations by showcasing the steps taken to safeguard sensitive data and maintain the integrity of operations—both while in-use and end-of-life. Not to mention, a properly documented accountability trail can simplify audits and routine inspections, allowing comprehensive documentation to serve as tangible evidence that the necessary safeguards and protocols are in place.

And as we covered earlier in this blog, documentation aids in risk mitigation, offering a proactive approach to allow facilities to rectify issues before they become compliance violations, thereby reducing legal and financial risks associated with non-compliance.

Furthermore, documentation ensures transparency and accountability within an organization, fostering a culture of compliance awareness among data center staff and encouraging best practices. When everyone understands their role in maintaining compliance and can reference documented procedures, the likelihood of unexpected errors or violations decreases significantly.

Data Decommissioning Documentation and the Role of SEM

Documentation provides a comprehensive record of not only the equipment’s history, but includes its configuration, usage, and any sensitive data it may have housed. Now, as mentioned above, depending on the type of information that was stored, it falls subject to specific industry-specific and government-imposed regulations, and the decommissioning process is no different.

When any data center equipment reaches the end of its operational life, proper documentation plays a crucial role in ensuring the secure and compliant disposal of these assets. This documentation is essential for verifying that all necessary data destruction procedures have been followed in accordance with regulatory requirements and industry best practices, allowing for transparency and accountability throughout the entire end-of-life equipment management process and reducing the risk of data breaches, legal liabilities, and regulatory non-compliance. 

At SEM, our mission is to provide facilities, organizations, and data centers the necessary high security solutions to conduct their data decommissioning processes in-house, allowing them to keep better control over their data assets and mitigate breaches or unauthorized access. We have a wide range of data center solutions designed to swiftly and securely destroy any and all sensitive information your data center is storing, including the SEM iWitness Media Tracking System and the Model DC-S1-3. 

The iWitness tool was created to document the data’s chain of custody and a slew of crucial details during the decommissioning process, including date and time, destruction method, serial and model number, operator, and more, all easily exported into one CSV file.

The DC-S1-3 is a powerhouse. This robust system was specifically designed for data centers to destroy enterprise rotational/magnetic drives and solid state drives. This state-of-the-art solution is available in three configurations: HDD, SSD, and a HDD/SSD Combo, and uses specially designed saw tooth hook cutters to shred those end-of-life rotational hard drives to a consistent 1.5″ particle size. The DC-S1-3 series is ideal for the shredding of HDDs, SSDs, data tapes, cell phones, smartphones, optical media, PCBs, and other related electronic storage media.  

These solutions are just three small examples of our engineering capabilities. With the help of our team of expert engineers and technicians, SEM has the capability and capacity to custom build more complex destruction solutions and vision tracking systems depending on your volume, industry, and compliance regulation. Our custom-made vision systems are able to fully track every step of the decommissioning process of each and every end-of-life drive, allowing facilities to have a detailed track record of the drive’s life. For more information on our custom solutions, visit our website here.


In conclusion, the significance of proper documentation and training cannot be overstated. These two pillars form the foundation upon which the efficiency, reliability, and security of a data center are built.

Proper documentation ensures that critical information about the data center’s infrastructure, configurations, and procedures is readily accessible, maintained, and always up-to-date. Documentation aids in organization and inventory management, knowledge preservation, troubleshooting, and compliance, thereby minimizing downtime, reducing risks, and supporting the overall operational performance of the data center.

In the same vein, comprehensive training for data center personnel is essential for harnessing a facility’s full potential. It empowers staff with the knowledge and skills needed to operate, maintain, and adapt to the evolving demands of a data center, giving them the power and confidence to proactively address issues, optimize performance, and contribute to the data center’s strategic objectives.

As technology continues to advance and data centers become increasingly critical to businesses, investment in proper documentation and training remains an indispensable strategy for ensuring a data center’s continued success and resilience in an ever-changing digital world.

The Critical Imperative of Data Center Physical Security

September 12, 2023 at 8:00 am by Amanda Canale

In our data-driven world, data centers serve as the backbone of the digital revolution. They house an immense amount of sensitive information critical to organizations, ranging from financial records to personal data. Ensuring the physical security of data centers is of paramount importance. After all, a data center’s physical property is the first level of security. By meeting the ever-evolving security mandates and controlling access to the premises, while maintaining and documenting a chain of custody during data decommissioning, data centers ensure that only authorized personnel have the privilege to interact with and access systems and their sensitive information.

Levels of Security Within Data Centers

Before any discussion on physical security best practices for data centers can begin, it’s important to think of data center security as a multi-layered endeavor, with each level meticulously designed to strengthen the protection of data against potential breaches and unauthorized access. 

Data centers with multi-level security measures, like Google and their six levels of data center security, represent the pinnacle of data infrastructure sophistication. These facilities are designed to provide an exceptional level of reliability and high security, offering the utmost advances in modern day security, ensuring data remains available, secure, and accessible. 

Below we have briefly broken down each security level to offer an inside peek at Google’s advanced security levels and best practices, as they serve as a great framework for data centers. 

  • Level 1: Physical property surrounding the facility, including gates, fences, and other more significant forms of defenses.
  • Level 2: Secure perimeter, complete with 24/7 security staff, smart fencing, surveillance cameras, and other perimeter defense systems.
  • Level 3: Data center entry is only accessible with a combination of company-issued ID badges, iris and facial scans, and other identification-confirming methods.
  • Level 4: The security operations center (SOC) houses the facility’s entire surveillance and monitoring systems and is typically managed by a select group of security personnel.
  • Level 5: The data center floor only allows access to a small percentage of facility staff, typically made up solely of engineers and technicians.
  • Level 6: Secure, in-house data destruction happens in the final level and serves as the end-of-life data’s final stop in its chain of custody. In this level, there is typically a secure two-way access system to ensure all end-of-life data is properly destroyed, does not leave the facility, and is only handled by staff with the highest level of clearance.

As technology continues to advance, we can expect data centers to evolve further, setting new, intricate, and more secure standards for data management in the digital age.

Now that you have this general overview of best practices, let’s dive deeper.

Key Elements of Data Center Physical Security

Effective data center physical security involves a combination of policies, procedures, and technologies. Let’s focus on five main elements today:

  • Physical barriers
  • Surveillance and monitoring
  • Access controls and visitor management
  • Environmental controls
  • Secure in-house data decommissioning
Physical Barriers

Regardless of the type of data center and industry, the first level of security is the physical property boundaries surrounding the facility. These property boundaries can range widely but typically include a cocktail of signage, fencing, reinforced doors, walls, and other significant forms of perimeter defenses that are meant to deter, discourage, or delay any unauthorized entry.  

Physical security within data centers is not a mere addendum to cybersecurity; it is an integral component in ensuring the continued operation, reputation, and success of the organizations that rely on your data center to safeguard their most valuable assets.

Surveillance and Monitoring

Data centers store vast amounts of sensitive information, making them prime targets for cybercriminals and physical intruders. Surveillance and monitoring systems are the vigilant watchdogs of data centers and act as a critical line of defense against unauthorized access. High-definition surveillance and CCTV cameras, alarm systems, and motion detectors work in harmony to help deter potential threats and provide real-time alerts, enabling prompt action to mitigate security breaches.

Access Controls and Visitor Management

Not all entrants are employees or authorized visitors. Access controls go hand-in-hand with surveillance and monitoring; both methods ensure that only authorized personnel can enter the facility. Control methods include biometric authentication, key cards, PINs, and other secure methods that help verify the identity of individuals seeking entry. These controls, paired with visitor management systems, allow facilities to control who may enter the facility, and allows staff to maintain logs and escort policies to track the movements of guests and service personnel. These efforts minimize the risk of unauthorized access, and by preventing unauthorized access, access controls significantly reduce the risk of security breaches.

Under the umbrella of access controls and visitor management is another crucial step in ensuring that only authorized persons have access to the data: assigning and maintaining a chain of custody. 

But what exactly is a chain of custody?

A chain of custody is a documented trail that meticulously records the handling, movement, and access, and activity to data. In the context of data centers, it refers to the tracking and documenting of data assets as they move within the facility, and throughout their lifecycle. A robust chain of custody ensures that data is always handled only by authorized personnel. Every interaction with the data, whether it’s during maintenance, migration, backup, or destruction, is documented. This transparency greatly reduces the risk of unauthorized access or tampering, enhancing overall data security and helps maintain data integrity, security, and compliance with regulations.

Environmental Controls

Within the walls of data centers, a crucial aspect of safeguarding your digital assets lies in environmental controls, so facilities must not only fend off human threats but environmental hazards, as well. As unpredictable as fires, floods, and extreme temperatures can be, data centers must implement robust environmental control systems as they are essential in preventing equipment damage and data loss. 

Environmental control systems include, but are not limited to:

  • Advanced fire suppression systems to extinguish fires quickly while minimizing damage to both equipment and data.
  • Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and generators ensure continuous operation even in the face of electrical disruptions.
  • Advanced air filtration and purification systems mitigate dust and contaminants that can harm your equipment, keeping your servers and equipment uncompromised. 
  • Leak detection systems are crucial for any data center. They are designed to identify even the smallest amount of leaks and trigger immediate responses to prevent further damage.

These systems are the unsung heroes, ensuring the optimal conditions for your data to (securely) thrive and seamlessly integrate with physical security measures.

In-House Data Decommissioning

While there’s often a strong emphasis on data collection and storage (rightfully so), an equally vital aspect in data center security is often overlooked—data decommissioning. In-house data decommissioning is the process of securely and responsibly disposing of any data considered “end-of-life,” ultimately empowers organizations to maintain better control over their data assets. Simply put, this translates to the physical destruction of any media that is deemed end-of-life by way of crushing for hard disk drives (HDDs), shredding for paper and solid state drives (SSDs), and more. 

When data is properly managed and disposed of, organizations can more effectively enforce data retention policies, ensuring that only relevant and up-to-date information is retained. This, in turn, leads to improved data governance and reduces the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive data.

In-house data decommissioning ensures that sensitive data is disposed of properly, reducing the risk of data leaks or breaches. It also helps organizations comply with data privacy regulations such as GDPR and HIPAA, which often require stringent secure data disposal practices.

Physical Security Compliance Regulations

We understand that not all compliance regulations are a one-size-fits-all solution for your data center’s security needs. However, the following regulations can still offer invaluable insights and a robust cybersecurity framework to follow, regardless of your specific industry or requirements. 

ISO 27001: Information Security Management System (ISMS)

ISO 27001 is an internationally recognized standard that encompasses a holistic approach to information security. This compliance regulation covers aspects such as physical security, personnel training, risk management, and incident response, ensuring a comprehensive security framework.

When it comes to physical security, ISO 27001 provides a roadmap for implementing stringent access controls, including role-based permissions, multi-factor authentication, and visitor management systems, and the implementation of surveillance systems, intrusion detection, and perimeter security. Combined, these controls help data centers ensure that only authorized personnel can enter the facility and access sensitive areas. 

Data centers that adopt ISO 27001 create a robust framework for identifying, assessing, and mitigating security risks. 

ISO 27002: Information Security, Cybersecurity, and Privacy Protection – Information Security Controls

ISO 27002 offers guidelines and best practices to help organizations establish, implement, maintain, and continually improve an information security management system, or ISMS. While ISO 27001 defines the requirements for an ISMS, ISO 27002 provides the practical controls for data centers and organizations to implement so various information security risks can be addressed. (It’s important to note that an organization can be certified in ISO 27001, but not in ISO 27002 as it simply serves as a guide. 

While ISO 27002’s focus is not solely on physical security, this comprehensive practice emphasizes the importance of conducting thorough risk assessments to identify vulnerabilities and potential threats in data centers, which can include physical threats just as much as cyber ones. Since data centers house sensitive hardware, software, and infrastructure, they are already a major target for breaches and attacks. ISO 27002 provides detailed guidelines for implementing physical security controls, including access restrictions, surveillance systems, perimeter security and vitality of biometric authentication, security badges, and restricted entry points, to prevent those attacks.


In an increasingly digital world where data is often considered the new currency, data centers serve as the fortresses that safeguard the invaluable assets of organizations. While we often associate data security with firewalls, encryption, and cyber threats, it’s imperative not to overlook the significance of physical security within these data fortresses. 

By assessing risks associated with physical security, environmental factors, and access controls, data center operators can take proactive measures to mitigate said risks. These measures greatly aid data centers in preventing unauthorized access, which can lead to data theft, service disruptions, and financial losses. Additionally, failing to meet compliance regulations can result in severe legal consequences and damage to an organization’s reputation.

In a perfect world, simply implementing iron-clad physical barriers and adhering to compliance regulations would completely eliminate the risk of data breaches. Unfortunately, that’s simply not the case. Both data center security and compliance encompass not only both cybersecurity and physical security, but secure data sanitization and destruction as well. The best way to achieve that level of security is with an in-house destruction plan. 

In-house data decommissioning allows organizations to implement and enforce customized security measures that align with their individual security policies and industry regulations. When data decommissioning is outsourced, there’s a risk that the third-party vendor may not handle the data with the same level of care and diligence as in-house teams would.

Throughout this blog, we’ve briefly mentioned that data centers should implement a chain of custody, especially during decommissioning. In-house data decommissioning and implementing a data chain of custody provide data centers the highest levels of control, customization, and security, making it the preferred choice for organizations that prioritize data protection, compliance, and risk mitigation. By keeping data decommissioning within their own control, organizations can ensure that their sensitive information is handled with the utmost care and security throughout its lifecycle.

At SEM, we have a wide range of data center solutions designed for you to securely destroy any and all sensitive information your data center is storing, including the SEM iWitness Media Tracking System and the Model DC-S1-3. 

The iWitness is a tool used in end-of-life data destruction to document the data’s chain of custody and a slew of crucial details during the decommissioning process. The hand-held device reports the drive’s serial number, model and manufacturer, the method of destruction and tool used, the name of the operator, date of destruction, and more, all easily exported into one CSV file. 

The DC-S1-3 is specifically designed for data centers to destroy enterprise rotational/magnetic drives and solid state drives. This state-of-the-art solution uses specially designed saw tooth hook cutters to shred those end-of-life rotational hard drives to a consistent 1.5″ particle size. This solution is available in three configurations: HDD, SSD, and a HDD/SSD Combo. The DC-S1-3 series is ideal for the shredding of HDDs, SSDs, data tapes, cell phones, smartphones, optical media, PCBs, and other related electronic storage media. 

The consequences of improper data destruction are endless, and statute of limitations don’t apply to data breaches. No matter what the industry, purchasing in-house, end-of-life data destruction equipment is well worth the investment. This can in turn potentially save your data center more time and money in the long run by preventing breaches early on.

Data Centers and NIST Compliance: Why 800-53 is Just the Start

August 22, 2023 at 4:42 pm by Amanda Canale

The world of data storage has been exponentially growing for the past several years and shows no signs of slowing down. From paper to floppy disks, HDDs to SSDs, and large servers to cloud-based infrastructures, the way we store data has become increasingly intricate using the latest and greatest major technological advancements. 

As the way we store our data continues to evolve, it’s becoming increasingly vital for data centers, federal agencies, and organizations alike to implement proper and secure data cybersecurity and information security practices, and appropriate procedures for secure data sanitization and destruction. Data center compliance is essential for various reasons, primarily centered around ensuring the security, integrity, and reliability of their data and systems. By complying with industry standards and regulations, data centers can safeguard sensitive data and ensure that proper security measures are in place to prevent unauthorized access, data breaches, and cyberattacks – both while data storage devices are in use and when they reach end-of-life. 

In summary, data center compliance falls under both cybersecurity and physical security best practices, and secure data sanitization and destruction. For a data center to operate at optimal performance and security, one cannot be without the other.

When discussing data center compliance, it’s important to not leave out an important player: the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST is one of the most widely recognized and adopted cybersecurity frameworks, is the industry’s most comprehensive and in-depth set of framework controls, and is a non-regulatory federal agency. NIST’s mission is to educate citizens on information system security for all applications outside of national security, including industry, government, academia, and healthcare on both a national and global scale. 

Their strict and robust standards and guidelines are widely recognized and adopted by both data centers and government entities alike seeking to improve their processes, quality, and security. 

In today’s blog, I want to dive into the two most important NIST publications data centers should consistently reference and implement into their security practices: NIST 800-88 and NIST 800-53. Both standardizations help create consistency across the industry, allowing data centers to communicate and collaborate with, and more effectively protect partners, clients, and regulatory bodies. Again: cybersecurity and destruction best practices go hand-in-hand, and should be implemented as a pair in order for a data center to operate compliantly. 

Step 1: Data Center Security and Privacy Framework

NIST 800-53

NIST 800-53 provides guidelines and recommendations for selecting and specifying security and privacy controls for federal information systems and organizations. While NIST 800-53 is primarily utilized by federal agencies, its principles and controls are widely recognized and adopted as a critical resource for information security and privacy management, not only by federal agencies but also by private sector organizations, international entities, and more importantly, data centers. 

NIST 800-53 serves as a comprehensive catalog of security and privacy controls that data centers can use to design, implement, and assess the security posture of their IT systems and infrastructure, all of which are crucial in sustaining a data center. The controls are related to data protection, encryption, data retention, and data disposal, and serve as a valuable resource for data centers looking to establish intricate and well-rounded cybersecurity and information security programs. 

NIST 800-53 addresses various aspects of information security, such as access control, incident response, system and communications protection, security assessment, and more. Each control is paired with specific guidelines and implementation details. These security controls, of which there are over a thousand, are further categorized into twenty “control families” based on their common objectives. (For example, access control controls are grouped together, as are incident response controls, and so forth.) These control families cover various aspects of security, including access control, network security, system monitoring, incident response, and more, offering data centers much higher rates of uptime and ability to minimize downtime.

Since data centers often handle sensitive and valuable information, they require robust physical security measures to prevent breaches and unauthorized access. NIST 800-53 addresses physical security controls, including access controls, video surveillance, intrusion detection systems, and environmental monitoring, which are vital in protecting the data center’s infrastructure.

It’s important to mention that while NIST 800-53 provides an increasingly valuable foundation for securing data center operations, organizations may need to tailor the controls to their specific environments, risk profiles, and compliance requirements. NIST 800-53 offers a flexible framework that allows for customization to suit the unique needs of different data center operators, making it a vital and critical resource.

Step 2: Data Destruction Compliance 

NIST 800-88

First published in 2006, NIST 800-88 and its Guidelines for Media Sanitization provides guidance and regulations on how citizens can conduct the secure and proper sanitization and/or destruction of media containing sensitive, classified, and top secret information. NIST 800-88 covers various types of media, including hard drives (HDDs), solid-state drives (SSDs), magnetic tapes, optical media, and other media storage devices. NIST 800-88 has quickly become the utmost standard for the U.S. Government and has been continuously referenced in federal data privacy laws. More so, NIST 800-88 regulations have been increasingly adopted by private companies and organizations, especially data centers. The main objective is to help data centers and organizations establish proper procedures for sanitizing media before its disposal at end-of-life.

When a data center facility or section is being decommissioned, equipment such as servers, storage devices, and networking gear must be properly sanitized and disposed of. NIST 800-88’s guidelines help data center operators develop procedures to securely handle the removal and disposal of equipment without risking future data breaches 

When it comes to sanitizing media, NIST 800-88 offers three key methods:

  1. Clearing: The act of overwriting media with non-sensitive data to prevent data recovery.
  2. Purging: A more thorough and comprehensive method that will render the stored data unrecoverable using advanced technology, such as cryptographic erasure and block erasing.
  3. Destruction: The physical destruction of a storage device either by way of shredding, crushing, disintegrating, or incineration. This often includes electromagnetic degaussing, a method that produces a buildup of electrical energy to create a magnetic field that scrambles and breaks the drive’s binary code, rendering it completely inoperable. The strength of the degausser is critical when eliminating sensitive information from magnetic media. Typically, degaussers evaluated and listed by the National Security Agency (NSA) are considered the golden standard. 

However, even these methods can come with their own drawbacks. For instance: 

  1. Clearing: For sensitive, classified, or top secret information, clearing or overwriting should never serve as the sole destruction method. Overwriting is only applicable to HDDs, not SSDs or Flash, and does not fully remove the information from the drive. 
  2. Purging: Unfortunately, purging methods are highly prone to human error and are a very time-consuming process.
  3. Destruction: Once the drive has been destroyed, it cannot be reused or repurposed. However, this method provides the assurance and security that the data is fully unrecoverable, the process can take mere seconds, and there is no room for human error.

The chosen destruction and/or sanitization method depends on the sensitivity of the information on the media and the level of protection required, so it is crucial that data centers and organizations take into account the classification of information and media type, as well as the risk to confidentiality. NIST 800-88 provides valuable guidance on media sanitization practices, which are crucial for data centers to ensure the secure disposal of data-filled devices while minimizing the risk of data breaches. Proper implementation of NIST guidelines allows data center officials to protect sensitive information and maintain data security throughout the lifecycle of data center equipment.

The Importance of Verification 

NIST guidelines, specifically NIST 800-88, have become the industry standard when it comes to secure data sanitization; however, they are not as definitive as other regulatory compliances. With NIST, the responsibility of data sanitization falls onto data centers’ or an agency’s chief information officers, system security managers, and other related staff.

As discussed above, the destruction and/or sanitization method depends on the sensitivity of the information on the media and the level of protection required, so it is critical to the security of the end-of-life data that organizations discuss the matters of security categorization, media chain of custody including internal and external considerations, and the risk to confidentiality.

Regardless of the method chosen, verification is the next critical step in the destruction and sanitization process. NIST verification typically refers to the process of validating or verifying compliance with standards, guidelines, or protocols established by the data center and/or organization. By NIST 800-88 standards, verification is the process of testing the end-of-life media to see if the stored information is accessible. 

For sanitization equipment to be verified, it must be subjected to testing and certification, such as the NSA evaluation and listing, and must abide by a strict maintenance schedule. For proper sanitization, the device must be verified through a third party testing should the media be reused. However, when media is destroyed, no such verification is necessary, as the pulverized material itself is verification enough. 

Since third party testing can be impractical, time consuming, and a gateway to data breaches, we at SEM always push for the in-house sanitization and destruction of media as the only choice to ensure full sanitization of data and the only way to mitigate future risks. When destroying data in-house, companies can be positive that the data is successfully destroyed. 


When it comes to data center compliance and security, there is no one-stop-shop. Adhering to both NIST 800-88 and 800-53 guidelines enhances the reputation of data centers by demonstrating a commitment to data security and privacy. This can help build trust with clients, customers, and stakeholders, leading to stronger business relationships. More importantly, these guidelines are necessary when collecting, storing, using, or destroying certain data. NIST provides educational resources, training materials, and documentation that help data center staff understand security concepts and best practices, empowering data center personnel to implement effective security measures.

At SEM, we have a wide range of NSA listed and noted solutions and CUI/NIST 800-88 compliant devices designed for you to securely destroy sensitive information. After all, the consequences of improper data destruction are endless and there is no statute of limitations on data breaches. No matter what the industry, purchasing in-house, end-of-life data destruction equipment is well worth the investment. Need us to craft a custom solution for your data center? You can find out more here.